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Masters in Social Work | MSW Programs In New York At …

: A dual Master of Arts in Bioethics and MSSA blends the values of social work with clinical ethics to create an outstanding interdisciplinary experience.

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Once the energy is delivered into a gas tank or turbine boiler, the efficiency of turning that chemical energy into mechanical energy is what first dealt with. Mechanical energy is called , whether it comes from human muscles, the muscles of draft animals, or machines. Also, the concept of power is critical, which is the amount of work performed over a time period. How quickly energy can be released and used is the crux of how rockets work, for instance. To get more power, more sophisticated technology was required, from taller masts in sailing ships to stronger components for watermills to high-performance engines (which run hotter with greater pressures). Generating more power was always a technological feat but was dependent on how much energy could be delivered and utilized and how quickly.

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There is also evidence that life itself can contribute to mass extinctions. When the eventually , organisms that could not survive or thrive around oxygen (called ) . When anoxic conditions appeared, particularly when existed, the anaerobes could abound once again, and when thrived, usually arising from ocean sediments, they . Since the ocean floor had already become anoxic, the seafloor was already a dead zone, so little harm was done there. The hydrogen sulfide became lethal when it rose in the and killed off surface life and then wafted into the air and near shore. But the greatest harm to life may have been inflicted when hydrogen sulfide eventually , which could have been the final blow to an already stressed ecosphere. That may seem a fanciful scenario, but there is evidence for it. There is fossil evidence of during the Permian extinction, as well as photosynthesizing anaerobic bacteria ( and ), which could have only thrived in sulfide-rich anoxic surface waters. Peter Ward made this key evidence for his , and he has implicated hydrogen sulfide events in most major mass extinctions. An important aspect of Ward’s Medea hypothesis work is that about 1,000 PPM of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which might be reached in this century if we keep burning fossil fuels, may artificially induce Canfield Oceans and result in . Those are not wild-eyed doomsday speculations, but logical outcomes of current trends and , proposed by leading scientists. Hundreds of already exist on Earth, which are primarily manmade. Even if those events are “only” 10% likely to happen in the next century, that we are flirting with them at all should make us shudder, for a few reasons, one of which is the awesome damage that it would inflict on the biosphere, including humanity, and another is that it is entirely preventable with the use of technologies .

The was the first mass extinction of organisms that could be seen with the naked human eye. There was an soon before the eon of complex life began, and there may have been mass extinctions of microbes before then, but the evidence is so thin for anything before then that scientists may never know just how many mass extinctions there were. However, bacteria and archaea, those , and those communities do not have the apparent instability of complex life’s food chains, so there may have been few mass extinctions in Precambrian times. Cyanobacteria have not fundamentally changed in billions of years, which means that its mode of living has always worked well enough to ensure its survival. No animals have anything close to such a lengthy pedigree.

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The twin ideas of efficiency and resilience are important. Efficiency is about getting more for less, particularly energy. Although aerobic respiration’s energy efficiency allowed for to develop, they end up creating interactions and dependencies, and the entire structure can lose its resilience when compared to simpler systems. Remove one part of the food chain and the entire ecosystem can collapse, and it can be part of the chain, from top to bottom. Making systems more efficient, as the last bits of energy are wrung from the system, reduces their resilience to the real world’s surprises. That dynamic is probably a key contributing factor of mass extinctions during the eon of complex life. Modern ecosystems studies are making the connections clear and are being applied to the dynamics of human civilizations; work has been seminal in this regard. Complex ecosystems pass through of exploitation, conservation, release, and reorganization, and three dimensions of interaction are involved: potential, connectedness, and resilience. In general, simple systems are more stable than complex ones, which is another reason why any , if there were any, would have been far less cataclysmic than those of complex life.

As with previous critical events, , life helped terraform Earth. But the late Devonian is an instance when the rise of land plants may have also had effects. , which reduced the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide concentration by up to 80%, may have cooled Earth’s surface enough so that an ice age began and another one of Earth’s mass extinctions began. As with the , the ultimate cause for the Devonian extinctions seems to have been rising and falling sea levels, associated with growing and receding ice caps, as . Devonian extinction events began happening more than 380 mya, and a major one happened about 375 mya, called the . The reasons for the Kellwasser event are today generally attributed to the water becoming cold and anoxic.A bolide impact has been invoked in some scientific circles, but .Mountain-building and volcanic events also happened as continents began colliding to eventually form Pangaea (and the resultant silicate and basaltic weathering removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere), and those dynamics may have been the previous major mass extinction. Black shales abounded during and after the Kellwasser event, and they are always evidence of anoxic conditions and how the oil deposits initially formed. However, the Kellwasser event anoxia may have not only been due to low atmospheric oxygen, but was also the result of eroding the newly exposed land and the detritus of the new forest biomes, which created a vast nutrient runoff into the oceans that may have initiated huge that caused anoxic events near shore.

, , economic/social/political stratification: , mass , pronounced , , including soldiers,  and craftsmen.
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Masters in Social Work Admission/Application Essay …

Bonobos have an average party size of about 17, and party sizes are consistent. How can they have such large and stable foraging parties while no other chimps can? Because they eat gorilla food. Because gorillas no longer live south of the Congo, the young leaves and herb stems not available to chimps where gorillas live make for pleasant bonobo traveling snacks. Since the biomass concentration of gorillas and chimps is nearly the same where their ranges overlap, it meant that bonobos had twice the food supply that chimps did. Bonobos also evolved to better digest gorilla foods, and larger parties put females on a more equal footing with males. Bonobos, both males and females, did not tolerate the alpha male model of other chimp societies in which male gangs dominated.

Masters in Social Work - Admission/Application Essay Example

Scientists today think that above all else, the first stone tools began humanity’s Age of Meat. Meat is a nutrient-dense food and is highly prized among wild chimpanzees that use it as a , and male chimps have used it as payment for sex. The human brain is more than three times the size of a chimpanzee’s, but recent research suggests that the human brain’s size is , and great ape brains seem relatively small because their bodies became relatively large, possibly due to sexual selection that resulted from vying for mates. Humans developed relatively larger brains and relatively smaller and weaker bodies, which was ; something had to give. Protohumans began relying on brains more than brawn. The studies of brain size, encephalization, neocortex function, intelligence, and their relationships are in their infancy. The current . Larger brains were needed for navigating increasing social complexity, and not only the number of individuals in a society, but the sophistication of interactions. It is also argued that smarter brains allowed for greater social complexity, in another possible instance of mutually reinforcing positive feedbacks. Societies can perform tasks that individuals cannot. Those engage in wars and revolutions. They can procure a food source and secure the territory, which creates the energetic means for developing a society. Tool-making may have been a bonus of that enlarged brain needed for social navigation, and walking bipedally coincidentally provided new opportunities for hands. , and all proposed dynamics may have had their influences. , about 10 times the energy needs of equivalent muscle mass, and primates cannot consciously turn their brains off any more than they can turn their livers off. Few studies have been performed on the relationships between energy, brains, and sleep, but a recent one found that sleep seems to be .

Sample Admission Essay – Masters in Social Work

One chimpanzee and gorilla behavior that can be difficult to comprehend, mentally and emotionally, is male murder of infants. If a chimp or gorilla encounters an infant that he knows he did not sire, he will kill it if he can. That behavior is also . Gorillas have a potentate/harem social organization, and when a male matures he is usually ejected from that gorilla society, but might become subordinate to the silverback patriarch (some troupes have more than one dominant silverback, and even up to seven silverbacks in one troupe has been observed). Bachelor gorillas can try to unseat a silverback to steal his harem, and if successful, the new potentate will kill all the infants he can. The average female gorilla will lose an infant to murder by a male in her lifetime. In chimp society, when a female is sexually receptive, she will mate with all males in the troupe, especially the dominant ones, so that every important male suspects that the infant might be his, and thus will not kill it. That strategy has been nicknamed, “Who’s Your Daddy?” The strategies of dominant males seem to work, as far as producing the most offspring. Paternity testing of chimpanzees, for instance, shows that alpha males and their “lieutenants” sire nearly all offspring in a band.

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